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Dynamic Event-triggered Control and Estimation: A Survey
Xiaohua Ge, Qing-Long Han, Xian-Ming Zhang, Derui Ding
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 857-886, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1306-z
The efficient utilization of computation and communication resources became a critical design issue in a wide range of networked systems due to the finite computation and processing capabilities of system components (e.g., sensor, controller) and shared network bandwidth. Event-triggered mechanisms (ETMs) are regarded as a major paradigm shift in resource-constrained applications compared to the classical time-triggered mechanisms, which allows a trade-off to be achieved between desired control/estimation performance and improved resource efficiency. In recent years, dynamic event-triggered mechanisms (DETMs) are emerging as a promising enabler to fulfill more resource-efficient and flexible design requirements. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in dynamic event-triggered control and estimation for networked systems. Firstly, a unified event-triggered control and estimation framework is established, which empowers several fundamental issues associated with the construction and implementation of the desired ETM and controller/estimator to be systematically investigated. Secondly, the motivations of DETMs and their main features and benefits are outlined. Then, two typical classes of DETMs based on auxiliary dynamic variables (ADVs) and dynamic threshold parameters (DTPs) are elaborated. In addition, the main techniques of constructing ADVs and DTPs are classified, and their corresponding analysis and design methods are discussed. Furthermore, three application examples are provided to evaluate different ETMs and verify how and under what conditions DETMs are superior to their static and periodic counterparts. Finally, several challenging issues are envisioned to direct the future research.
Supervised and Semi-supervised Methods for Abdominal Organ Segmentation: A Review
Isaac Baffour Senkyire, Zhe Liu
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 887-914, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1313-0
Abdominal organ segmentation is the segregation of a single or multiple abdominal organ(s) into semantic image segments of pixels identified with homogeneous features such as color and texture, and intensity. The abdominal organ(s) condition is mostly connected with greater morbidity and mortality. Most patients often have asymptomatic abdominal conditions and symptoms, which are often recognized late; hence the abdomen has been the third most common cause of damage to the human body. That notwithstanding, there may be improved outcomes where the condition of an abdominal organ is detected earlier. Over the years, supervised and semi-supervised machine learning methods have been used to segment abdominal organ(s) in order to detect the organ(s) condition. The supervised methods perform well when the used training data represents the target data, but the methods require large manually annotated data and have adaptation problems. The semi-supervised methods are fast but record poor performance than the supervised if assumptions about the data fail to hold. Current state-of-the-art methods of supervised segmentation are largely based on deep learning techniques due to their good accuracy and success in real world applications. Though it requires a large amount of training data for automatic feature extraction, deep learning can hardly be used. As regards the semi-supervised methods of segmentation, self-training and graph-based techniques have attracted much research attention. Self-training can be used with any classifier but does not have a mechanism to rectify mistakes early. Graph-based techniques thrive on their convexity, scalability, and effectiveness in application but have an out-of-sample problem. In this review paper, a study has been carried out on supervised and semi-supervised methods of performing abdominal organ segmentation. An observation of the current approaches, connection and gaps are identified, and prospective future research opportunities are enumerated.
Research Article
Improved Network for Face Recognition Based on Feature Super Resolution Method
Ling-Yi Xu, Zoran Gajic
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 915-925, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1309-9
Low-resolution face images can be found in many practical applications. For example, faces captured from surveillance videos are typically in small sizes. Existing face recognition deep networks, trained on high-resolution images, perform poorly in recognizing low-resolution faces. In this work, an improved multi-branch network is proposed by combining ResNet and feature super-resolution modules. ResNet is for recognizing high-resolution facial images and extracting features from both high- and low-resolution images. Feature super-resolution modules are inserted before the classifier of ResNet for low-resolution facial images. They are used to increase feature resolution. The proposed method is effective and simple. Experimental results show that the recognition accuracy for high-resolution face images is high, and the recognition accuracy for low-resolution face images is improved.
Mechanical Design and Dynamic Compliance Control of Lightweight Manipulator
Shao-Lin Zhang, Yue-Guang Ge, Hai-Tao Wang, Shuo Wang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 926-934, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1311-2
In the existing modular joint design and control methods of collaborative robots, the inertia of the manipulator link is large, the dynamic trajectory planning ability is weak, the collision stop safety strategy is dependent, and the adaptability and safety to the changing environment are limited. This paper develops a six-degree-of-freedom lightweight collaborative manipulator with real-time dynamic trajectory planning and active compliance control. Firstly, a novel motor installation, joint transmission, and link design method is put forward to reduce the inertia of the links and improve intrinsic safety. At the same time, to enhance the dynamic operation capability and quick response of the manipulator, a smooth planning of position and orientation under initial/end pose and velocity constraints is proposed. The adaptability to the environment is improved by the active compliance control. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design, planning, and control methods.
Fault Information Recognition for On-board Equipment of High-speed Railway Based on Multi-neural Network Collaboration
Lu-Jie Zhou, Jian-Wu Dang, Zhen-Hai Zhang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 935-946, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1298-8
It is of great significance to guarantee the efficient statistics of high-speed railway on-board equipment fault information, which also improves the efficiency of fault analysis. Considering this background, this paper presents an empirical exploration of named entity recognition (NER) of on-board equipment fault information. Based on the historical fault records of on-board equipment, a fault information recognition model based on multi-neural network collaboration is proposed. First, considering Chinese recorded data characteristics, a method of constructing semantic features and additional features based on character granularity is proposed. Then, the two feature representations are concatenated and passed into the gated convolutional layer to extract the dependencies from multiple different subspaces and adjacent characters in parallel. Next, the local features are transmitted to the bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) to learn long-term dependency information. On top of BiLSTM, the sequential conditional random field (CRF) is used to jointly decode the optimized tag sequence of the whole sentence. The model is tested and compared with other representative baseline models. The results show that the proposed model not only considers the language characteristics of on-board fault records, but also has obvious advantages on the performance of fault information recognition.
Research on Voiceprint Recognition of Camouflage Voice Based on Deep Belief Network
Nan Jiang, Ting Liu
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 947-962, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1283-2
The problem of disguised voice recognition based on deep belief networks is studied. A hybrid feature extraction algorithm based on formants, Gammatone frequency cepstrum coefficients (GFCC) and their different coefficients is proposed to extract more discriminative speaker features from the original voice data. Using mixed features as the input of the model, a masquerade voice library is constructed. A masquerade voice recognition model based on a depth belief network is proposed. A dropout strategy is introduced to prevent overfitting, which effectively solves the problems of traditional Gaussian mixture models, such as insufficient modeling ability and low discrimination. Experimental results show that the proposed disguised voice recognition method can better fit the feature distribution, and significantly improve the classification effect and recognition rate.
DLA+: A Light Aggregation Network for Object Classification and Detection
Fu-Tian Wang, Li Yang, Jin Tang, Si-Bao Chen, Xin Wang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 963-972, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1287-y
An efficient convolution neural network (CNN) plays a crucial role in various visual tasks like object classification or detection, etc. The most common way to construct a CNN is stacking the same convolution block or complex connection. These approaches may be efficient but the parameter size and computation (Comp) have explosive growth. So we present a novel architecture called “DLA+”, which could obtain the feature from the different stages, and by the newly designed convolution block, could achieve better accuracy, while also dropping the computation six times compared to the baseline. We design some experiments about classification and object detection. On the CIFAR10 and VOC data-sets, we get better precision and faster speed than other architecture. The lightweight network even allows us to deploy to some low-performance device like drone, laptop, etc.
Encoding-decoding Network With Pyramid Self-attention Module for Retinal Vessel Segmentation
Cong-Zhong Wu, Jun Sun, Jing Wang, Liang-Feng Xu, Shu Zhan
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 973-980, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1277-0
Retina vessel segmentation is a vital step in diagnosing ophthalmologic diseases. Traditionally, ophthalmologists segment retina vessels by hand, which is time-consuming and error-prone. Thus, more and more researchers are committed to the research of automatic segmentation algorithms. With the development of convolution neural networks (CNNs), many tasks can be solved by CNNs. In this paper, we propose an encoding-decoding network with a pyramid self-attention module (PSAM) to segment retinal vessels. The network follows a U shape structure, and it comprises stacked feature selection blocks (FSB) and a PSAM. The proposed FSB consists of two convolution blocks with the same weight and a channel-wise attention block. At the head of the network, we apply a PSAM consisting of three parallel self-attention modules to capture long-range dependence of different scales. Due to the power of PSAM and FSB, the performance of the network improves. We have evaluated our model on two public datasets: DRIVE and CHASE_DB1. The results show the performance of our model is better than other methods. The F1, Accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) are 82.21%/80.57%, 95.65%/97.02%, and 98.16%/98.46% on DRIVE and CHASE_DB1, respectively.
Data Augmentation and Deep Neuro-fuzzy Network for Student Performance Prediction with MapReduce Framework
Amlan Jyoti Baruah, Siddhartha Baruah
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 981-992, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1312-1
The main aim of an educational institute is to offer high-quality education to students. The system to achieve better quality in the educational system is to find the knowledge from educational data and to discover the attributes that manipulate the performance of students. Student performance prediction is a major issue in education and training, specifically in the educational data mining system. This research presents the student performance prediction approach with the MapReduce framework based on the proposed fractional competitive multi-verse optimization-based deep neuro-fuzzy network. The proposed fractional competitive multi-verse optimization-based deep neuro-fuzzy network is derived by integrating fractional calculus with competitive multi-verse optimization. The MapReduce framework is designed with the mapper and the reducer phase to perform the student performance prediction mechanism with the deep learning classifier. The input data is partitioned at the mapper phase to perform the data transformation process, and thereby the features are selected using the distance measure. The selected unique features are employed for the data segmentation process, and thereafter the prediction strategy is accomplished at the reducer phase by the deep neuro-fuzzy network classifier. The proposed method obtained the performance in terms of mean square error, root mean square error and mean absolute error with the values of 0.3383, 0.5817, and 0.3915, respectively.
A Signal Based “W” Structural Elements for Multi-scale Mathematical Morphology Analysis and Application to Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearings of Wind Turbines
Qiang Li, Yong-Sheng Qi, Xue-Jin Gao, Yong-Ting Li, Li-Qiang Liu
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 993-1006, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1305-0
Working conditions of rolling bearings of wind turbine generators are complicated, and their vibration signals often show non-linear and non-stationary characteristics. In order to improve the efficiency of feature extraction of wind turbine rolling bearings and to strengthen the feature information, a new structural element and an adaptive algorithm based on the peak energy are proposed, which are combined with spectral correlation analysis to form a fault diagnosis algorithm for wind turbine rolling bearings. The proposed method firstly addresses the problem of impulsive signal omissions that are prone to occur in the process of fault feature extraction of traditional structural elements and proposes a “W” structural element to capture more characteristic information. Then, the proposed method selects the scale of multi-scale mathematical morphology, aiming at the problem of multi-scale mathematical morphology scale selection and structural element expansion law. An adaptive algorithm based on peak energy is proposed to carry out morphological scale selection and structural element expansion by improving the computing efficiency and enhancing the feature extraction effect. Finally, the proposed method performs spectral correlation analysis in the frequency domain for an unknown signal of the extracted feature and identifies the fault based on the correlation coefficient. The method is verified by numerical examples using experimental rig bearing data and actual wind field acquisition data and compared with traditional triangular and flat structural elements. The experimental results show that the new structural elements can more effectively extract the pulses in the signal and reduce noise interference, and the fault-diagnosis algorithm can accurately identify the fault category and improve the reliability of the results.
Observer-based Multirate Feedback Control Design for Two-time-scale System
Ravindra Munje, Wei-Dong Zhang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1007-1016, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1268-6
The use of a lower sampling rate for designing a discrete-time state feedback-based controller fails to capture information of fast states in a two-time-scale system, while the use of a higher sampling rate increases the amount of computation considerably. Thus, the use of single-rate sampling for systems with slow and fast states has evident limitations. In this paper, multirate state feedback (MRSF) control for a linear time-invariant two-time-scale system is proposed. Here, multirate sampling refers to the sampling of slow and fast states at different sampling rates. Firstly, a block-triangular form of the original continuous two-time-scale system is constructed. Then, it is discretized with a smaller sampling period and feedback control is designed for the fast subsystem. Later, the system is block-diagonalized and equivalently represented into a system with a higher sampling period. Subsequently, feedback control is designed for the slow subsystem and overall MRSF control is derived. It is proved that the derived MRSF control stabilizes the full-order system. Being the transformed states of the original system, slow and fast states need to be estimated for the MRSF control realization. Hence, a sequential two-stage observer is formulated to estimate these states. Finally, the applicability of the design method is demonstrated with a numerical example and simulation results are compared with the single-rate sampling method. It is found that the proposed MRSF control and observer designs reduce computations without compromising closed-loop performance.
A Model of Spray Tool and a Parameter Optimization Method for Spraying Path Planning
Ru-Xiang Hua, Wei Zou, Guo-Dong Chen, Hong-Xuan Ma, Wei Zhang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1017-1031, doi: 10.1007/s11633-021-1310-3
The digital camouflage spraying of special vehicles carried out by robots can greatly improve the spraying efficiency, spraying quality, and rapid adaptability to personalized patterns. The selection of spray tool and the accuracy of the adopted mathematical spray tool model has a great impact on the effectiveness of spray path planning and spraying quality. Since traditional conical spray tool models are not suitable for spraying rectangular digital camouflage, according to the characteristics of digital camouflage, the coating thickness cumulative distribution model of strip nozzle spray tool for 2D plane spraying and 3D surface spraying is derived, and its validity is verified by simulation. Based on the accumulation velocity model of the coating thickness (AVCT) on the curved surface and aiming at spraying path planning within the same surface and different surfaces, a path parameter optimization method based on coating uniformity evaluation of adjacent path overlapping area is proposed. Combined with the vehicle surface model, parameters such as path interval, spray tool angle and spray tool motion velocity can be calculated in real-time to ensure uniform coating. Based on the known local three-dimensional model of vehicle surface and the comprehensive spraying simulation, the validity of the purposed models: the coating thickness on the adjacent path area (CTAPA), the coating thickness on the intersection of two surfaces (CTITS), the coating thickness on the intersection of a plane and a surface (CTIPS), and the optimization method of path parameters are verified. The results show that compared with the traditional spray tool, the strip nozzle can better ensure the uniformity of the coating thickness of digital camouflage spray. Finally, according to a practical spraying experiment, the results prove that the proposed models not only are effective but also meet the practical industrial requirements and are of great practical value.
An Intelligent Multi-robot Path Planning in a Dynamic Environment Using Improved Gravitational Search Algorithm
P. K. Das, H. S. Behera, P. K. Jena, B. K. Panigrahi
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1032-1044, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1019-x
This paper proposes a new methodology to optimize trajectory of the path for multi-robots using improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA) in clutter environment. Classical GSA has been improved in this paper based on the communication and memory characteristics of particle swarm optimization (PSO). IGSA technique is incorporated into the multi-robot system in a dynamic framework, which will provide robust performance, self-deterministic cooperation, and coping with an inhospitable environment. The robots in the team make independent decisions, coordinate, and cooperate with each other to accomplish a common goal using the developed IGSA. A path planning scheme has been developed using IGSA to optimally obtain the succeeding positions of the robots from the existing position in the proposed environment. Finally, the analytical and experimental results of the multi-robot path planning were compared with those obtained by IGSA, GSA and differential evolution (DE) in a similar environment. The simulation and the Khepera environment result show outperforms of IGSA as compared to GSA and DE with respect to the average total trajectory path deviation, average uncovered trajectory target distance and energy optimization in terms of rotation.
Correction to: Zero-shot Fine-grained Classification by Deep Feature Learning with Semantics
Ao-Xue Li, Ke-Xin Zhang, Li-Wei Wang
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1045-1045, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1224-5
Erratum to: A Robust MPP Tracker Based on Sliding Mode Control for a Photovoltaic Based Pumping System
Farhat Maissa, Oscar Barambones, Sbita Lassaad, Aymen Fleh
2021, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1046-1046, doi: 10.1007/s11633-017-1098-3