Volume 19, Number 2, 2022

Display Method:
Knowledge Mining: A Cross-disciplinary Survey
Yong Rui, Vicente Ivan Sanchez Carmona, Mohsen Pourvali, Yun Xing, Wei-Wen Yi, Hui-Bin Ruan, Yu Zhang
2022, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 89-114, doi: 10.1007/s11633-022-1323-6
Knowledge mining is a widely active research area across disciplines such as natural language processing (NLP), data mining (DM), and machine learning (ML). The overall objective of extracting knowledge from data source is to create a structured representation that allows researchers to better understand such data and operate upon it to build applications. Each mentioned discipline has come up with an ample body of research, proposing different methods that can be applied to different data types. A significant number of surveys have been carried out to summarize research works in each discipline. However, no survey has presented a cross-disciplinary review where traits from different fields were exposed to further stimulate research ideas and to try to build bridges among these fields. In this work, we present such a survey.
Research Article
Sharing Weights in Shallow Layers via Rotation Group Equivariant Convolutions
Zhiqiang Chen, Ting-Bing Xu, Jinpeng Li, Huiguang He
2022, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 115-126, doi: 10.1007/s11633-022-1324-5
The convolution operation possesses the characteristic of translation group equivariance. To achieve more group equivariances, rotation group equivariant convolutions (RGEC) are proposed to acquire both translation and rotation group equivariances. However, previous work paid more attention to the number of parameters and usually ignored other resource costs. In this paper, we construct our networks without introducing extra resource costs. Specifically, a convolution kernel is rotated to different orientations for feature extractions of multiple channels. Meanwhile, much fewer kernels than previous works are used to ensure that the output channel does not increase. To further enhance the orthogonality of kernels in different orientations, we construct the non-maximum-suppression loss on the rotation dimension to suppress the other directions except the most activated one. Considering that the low-level-features benefit more from the rotational symmetry, we only share weights in the shallow layers (SWSL) via RGEC. Extensive experiments on multiple datasets (i.e., ImageNet, CIFAR, and MNIST) demonstrate that SWSL can effectively benefit from the higher-degree weight sharing and improve the performances of various networks, including plain and ResNet architectures. Meanwhile, the convolutional kernels and parameters are much fewer (e.g., 75%, 87.5% fewer) in the shallow layers, and no extra computation costs are introduced.
Satellite Integration into 5G: Deep Reinforcement Learning for Network Selection
Emanuele De Santis, Alessandro Giuseppi, Antonio Pietrabissa, Michael Capponi, Francesco Delli Priscoli
2022, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 127-137, doi: 10.1007/s11633-022-1326-3
This paper proposes a deep-Q-network (DQN) controller for network selection and adaptive resource allocation in heterogeneous networks, developed on the ground of a Markov decision process (MDP) model of the problem. Network selection is an enabling technology for multi-connectivity, one of the core functionalities of 5G. For this reason, the present work considers a realistic network model that takes into account path-loss models and intra-RAT (radio access technology) interference. Numerical simulations validate the proposed approach and show the improvements achieved in terms of connection acceptance, resource allocation, and load balancing. In particular, the DQN algorithm has been tested against classic reinforcement learning one and other baseline approaches.
A Dynamic Resource Allocation Strategy with Reinforcement Learning for Multimodal Multi-objective Optimization
Qian-Long Dang, Wei Xu, Yang-Fei Yuan
2022, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 138-152, doi: 10.1007/s11633-022-1314-7
Many isolation approaches, such as zoning search, have been proposed to preserve the diversity in the decision space of multimodal multi-objective optimization (MMO). However, these approaches allocate the same computing resources for subspaces with different difficulties and evolution states. In order to solve this issue, this paper proposes a dynamic resource allocation strategy (DRAS) with reinforcement learning for multimodal multi-objective optimization problems (MMOPs). In DRAS, relative contribution and improvement are utilized to define the aptitude of subspaces, which can capture the potentials of subspaces accurately. Moreover, the reinforcement learning method is used to dynamically allocate computing resources for each subspace. In addition, the proposed DRAS is applied to zoning searches. Experimental results demonstrate that DRAS can effectively assist zoning search in finding more and better distributed equivalent Pareto optimal solutions in the decision space.
Pedestrian Attribute Recognition in Video Surveillance Scenarios Based on View-attribute Attention Localization
Wei-Chen Chen, Xin-Yi Yu, Lin-Lin Ou
2022, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 153-168, doi: 10.1007/s11633-022-1321-8
Pedestrian attribute recognition in surveillance scenarios is still a challenging task due to the inaccurate localization of specific attributes. In this paper, we propose a novel view-attribute localization method based on attention (VALA), which utilizes view information to guide the recognition process to focus on specific attributes and attention mechanism to localize specific attribute-corresponding areas. Concretely, view information is leveraged by the view prediction branch to generate four view weights that represent the confidences for attributes from different views. View weights are then delivered back to compose specific view-attributes, which will participate and supervise deep feature extraction. In order to explore the spatial location of a view-attribute, regional attention is introduced to aggregate spatial information and encode inter-channel dependencies of the view feature. Subsequently, a fine attentive attribute-specific region is localized, and regional weights for the view-attribute from different spatial locations are gained by the regional attention. The final view-attribute recognition outcome is obtained by combining the view weights with the regional weights. Experiments on three wide datasets (richly annotated pedestrian (RAP), annotated pedestrian v2 (RAPv2), and PA-100K) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach compared with state-of-the-art methods.