Volume 14, Number 1, 2017

Special Issue on Emergent Control and ComputingTechniques for Industrial Applications (pp.10-105)

Display Method:
Pinning Control and Controllability of Complex Dynamical Networks
Guanrong Chen
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-9, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1052-9
In this article, the notion of pinning control for directed networks of dynamical systems is introduced, where the nodes could be either single-input single-output (SISO) or multi-input multi-output (MIMO) dynamical systems, and could be non-identical and nonlinear in general but will be specified to be identical linear time-invariant (LTI) systems here in the study of network controllability. Both state and structural controllability problems will be discussed, illustrating how the network topology, node-system dynamics, external control inputs and inner dynamical interactions altogether affect the controllability of a general complex network of LTI systems, with necessary and sufficient conditions presented for both SISO and MIMO settings. To that end, the controllability of a special temporally switching directed network of linear time-varying (LTV) node systems will be addressed, leaving some more general networks and challenging issues to the end for research outlook.
Innovative Developments in HCI and Future Trends
Mohammad S. Hasan, Hongnian Yu
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 10-20, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1039-6
The recent developments in technology have made noteworthy positive impacts on the human-computer interaction (HCI). It is now possible to interact with computers using voice commands, touchscreen, eye movement, hand gesture, etc. This paper compiles some of the innovative HCI progresses in various areas, e.g., specialised input/output devices, virtual or augmented reality, wearable technology, etc. It also identifies some future research directions.
Research Article
An Advanced Prediction Mechanism to Analyse Pore Geometry Shapes and Identification of Blocking Effect in VRLA Battery System
Alessandro Mariani, Kary Thanapalan, Peter Stevenson, Jonathan Williams
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21-32, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1040-0
The aim of this investigation is to define a model of an alternating current impedance response that can identify the state of health of a porous electrode due to the blocked diffusion effect. To identify and simulate different pore geometries, an analytical differential equations system was studied. Standard and low performance battery products were simulated by the model and validated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experimental data. The correlation between pore structure geometries and the related battery efficiency is also addressed. This investigation may clarify the possible reasons for low performance batteries. Identifying the benchmark pore geometry, parameters may be useful for the battery producers to improve the efficiency of their products. Various recovery methods are also included in this investigation to disperse the build-up of lead sulphate crystal that limits the electrolysis process in the low performance batteries.
A Novel Minkowski-distance-based Consensus Clustering Algorithm
De-Gang Xu, Pan-Lei Zhao, Chun-Hua Yang, Wei-Hua Gui, Jian-Jun He
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-44, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1033-z
Consensus clustering is the problem of coordinating clustering information about the same data set coming from different runs of the same algorithm. Consensus clustering is becoming a state-of-the-art approach in an increasing number of applications. However, determining the optimal cluster number is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel consensus clustering algorithm that is based on the Minkowski distance. Fusing with the Newman greedy algorithm in complex networks, the proposed clustering algorithm can automatically set the number of clusters. It is less sensitive to noise and can integrate solutions from multiple samples of data or attributes for processing data in the processing industry. A numerical simulation is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Finally, this consensus clustering algorithm is applied to a froth flotation process.
Differential Evolution Based High-order Peak Filter Design with Application to Compensation of Contact-induced Vibration in HDD Servo Systems
Deqing Huang, Jian-Xin Xu, Xin Deng, Venkatakrishnan Venkataramanan, The Cat Tuong Huynh
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 45-56, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1034-y
Sensitivity loop shaping using add-on peak filters is a simple and effective method to reject narrow-band disturbances in hard disk drive (HDD) servo systems. The parallel peak filter is introduced to provide high-gain magnitude in the concerned frequency range of open-loop transfer function. Different from almost all the known peak filters that possess second-order structures, we explore in this paper how high-order peak filters can be designed to improve the loop shaping performance. The main idea is to replace some of the constant coefficients of common second-order peak filter by frequency-related transfer functions, and then differential evolution (DE) algorithm is adopted to perform optimal design. We creatively introduce chromosome coding and fitness function design, which are original and the key steps that lead to the success of DE applications in control system design. In other words, DE is modified to achieve a novel design for hard disk drive control. Owing to the remarkable searching ability of DE, the expected shape of sensitivity function can be achieved by incorporating the resultant high-order peak filter in parallel with baseline feedback controller. As a result, a seventh-order peak filter is designed to compensate for contact-induced vibration in a high-density HDD servo system, where the benefits of high-order filter are clearly demonstrated.
An Effective Density Based Approach to Detect Complex Data Clusters Using Notion of Neighborhood Difference
S. Nagaraju, Manish Kashyap, Mahua Bhattachraya
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 57-67, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1038-7
The density based notion for clustering approach is used widely due to its easy implementation and ability to detect arbitrary shaped clusters in the presence of noisy data points without requiring prior knowledge of the number of clusters to be identified. Density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is the first algorithm proposed in the literature that uses density based notion for cluster detection. Since most of the real data set, today contains feature space of adjacent nested clusters, clearly DBSCAN is not suitable to detect variable adjacent density clusters due to the use of global density parameter neighborhood radius Nrad and minimum number of points in neighborhood Npts. So the efficiency of DBSCAN depends on these initial parameter settings, for DBSCAN to work properly, the neighborhood radius must be less than the distance between two clusters otherwise algorithm merges two clusters and detects them as a single cluster. Through this paper:1) We have proposed improved version of DBSCAN algorithm to detect clusters of varying density adjacent clusters by using the concept of neighborhood difference and using the notion of density based approach without introducing much additional computational complexity to original DBSCAN algorithm. 2) We validated our experimental results using one of our authors recently proposed space density indexing (SDI) internal cluster measure to demonstrate the quality of proposed clustering method. Also our experimental results suggested that proposed method is effective in detecting variable density adjacent nested clusters.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Persistent Slip Bands Formation in Nickel-base Superalloys
Jian-Feng Huang, Zhong-Lai Wang, Er-Fu Yang, Don McGlinchey, Yuan-Xin Luo, Yun Li, Yi Chen
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 68-79, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1035-x
Persistent slip band (PSB) is an important and typical microstructure generated during fatigue crack initiation. Intensive work has been done to investigate the mechanisms of the formation of persistent slip bands since the 1950s when Wadsworth[1] observed the fatigue fracture in copper. Simulations have indicated that PSBs formation during fatigue crack initiation is related to the dislocation driving force and interaction. In this paper, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation associated with embedded atom model (EAM) is applied to the PSBs formation in nickel-base superalloys with different microstructure and temperature under tensiletensile loadings. Five MD models with different microstructure (pure γ phase and γ/γ' phase), grain orientation ([1 0 0] [0 1 0] [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] [1 0 1] [1 2 1]) and simulation temperature (300 K, 600K, 900K) were built up in these simulations. Our results indicated that within the γ phase by massive dislocations, pile-up and propagation which can penetrate the grain. Also, it is found that the temperature will affect the material fatigue performance and blur PSBs appearance. The simulation results are in strong agreement with published experimental test result. This simulation is based on the work[2]. The highlights of the article include:1) investigation of the PSB formation via molecular dynamics simulation with three different parameters, 2) conduct of a new deformation and velocity combination controlled simulation for the PSB formation, 3) high-performance computing of PSB formation, and 4) systematic analysis of the PSB formation at the atomic scale in which the dislocation plays a critical role.
Actuator Fault Monitoring and Fault Tolerant Control in Distillation Columns
Sulaiman Ayobami Lawal, Jie Zhang
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 80-92, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1037-8
This paper presents, from a practical viewpoint, an investigation of real-time actuator fault detection, propagation and accommodation in distillation columns. Addressing faults in industrial processes, coupled with the growing demand for higher performance, improved safety and reliability necessitates implementation of less complex alternative control strategies in the events of malfunctions in actuators, sensors and or other system components. This work demonstrates frugality in the design and implementation of fault tolerant control system by integrating fault detection and diagnosis techniques with simple active restructurable feedback controllers and with backup feedback signals and switchable reference points to accommodate actuator fault in distillation columns based on a priori assessed control structures. A multivariate statistical process monitoring based fault detection and diagnosis technique through dynamic principal components analysis is integrated with one-point control or alternative control structure for prompt and effective fault detection, isolation and accommodation. The work also investigates effects of disturbances on fault propagation and detection. Specifically, the reflux and vapor boil-up control strategy used for a binary distillation column during normal operation is switched to one point control of the more valued product by utilizing the remaining healthy actuator. The proposed approach was implemented on two distillation processes:a simulated methanol-water separation column and the benchmark Shell standard heavy oil fractionation process to assess its effectiveness.
Robust Stabilization of Load Frequency Control System Under Networked Environment
Ashraf Khalil, Ji-Hong Wang, Omar Mohamed
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 93-105, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1041-z
The deregulation of the electricity market made the open communication infrastructure an exigent need for future power system. In this scenario dedicated communication links are replaced by shared networks. These shared networks are characterized by random time delay and data loss. The random time delay and data loss may lead to system instability if they are not considered during the controller design stage. Load frequency control systems used to rely on dedicated communication links. To meet future power system challenges these dedicated networks are replaced by open communication links which makes the system stochastic. In this paper, the stochastic stabilization of load frequency control system under networked environment is investigated. The shared network is represented by three states which are governed by Markov chains. A controller synthesis method based on the stochastic stability criteria is presented in the paper. A one-area load frequency control system is chosen as case study. The effectiveness of the proposed method for the controller synthesis is tested through simulation. The derived proportion integration (PI) controller proves to be optimum where it is a compromise between compensating the random time delay effects and degrading the system dynamic performance. The range of the PI controller gains that guarantee the stochastic stability is determined. Also the range of the PI controller gains that achieve the robust stochastic stability is determined where the decay rate is used to measure the robustness of the system.
Lom: Discovering Logic Flaws Within MongoDB-based Web Applications
Shuo Wen, Yuan Xue, Jing Xu, Li-Ying Yuan, Wen-Li Song, Hong-Ji Yang, Guan-Nan Si
2017, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 106-118, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1051-x
Logic flaws within web applications will allow malicious operations to be triggered towards back-end database. Existing approaches to identifying logic flaws of database accesses are strongly tied to structured query language (SQL) statement construction and cannot be applied to the new generation of web applications that use not only structured query language (NoSQL) databases as the storage tier. In this paper, we present Lom, a black-box approach for discovering many categories of logic flaws within MongoDBbased web applications. Our approach introduces a MongoDB operation model to support new features of MongoDB and models the application logic as a mealy finite state machine. During the testing phase, test inputs which emulate state violation attacks are constructed for identifying logic flaws at each application state. We apply Lom to several MongoDB-based web applications and demonstrate its effectiveness.